|Date Written||40-65 AD
Possibly the 1st gospel
|37-68 AD||59-61 AD||80-98 AD
The last gospel written about 60-years after Jesus
'Sharing a common view'
John is not a Synoptic gospel. It is very different to Mark, Matthew and Luke
Mark shows that Jesus taught with authority, as affirmed by the miracles He performed.
Matthew writes on the teachings of Jesus and explains the Kingdom of Heaven: the law, mission, mysteries, greatness and future
Luke contains numerous references to the activity of the Holy Spirit.
Women are given special attention in Luke.
John differs significantly from the synoptic gospels in theme, content, time duration, order of events and style.
Only ca. 8% of John is parallel with the other gospels, and even then, no word-for-word parallelism occurs as is found among the synoptic gospels
|Emphasis||Horrible suffering; tragic death||Authorities' plots and treachery||Jesus' innocence; forgiveness||Jesus' exaltation and glorification|
|Key Verse||For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.
||And set up over his head his accusation written, This is Jesus The King of the Jews
||For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost
||For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.
|Gospel of Choice||Liberal Christians||Liberal Christians||Liberal Christians||Gnostic/Conservative Christians|
|Preaching Style||A sage style; Brief one-liners; Parables; Kingdom of God||A sage style; Brief one-liners; Parables; Kingdom of God||A sage; Brief one-liners; Parables; Kingdom of God||A philosopher and mystic style; Essay format; Jesus himself. Kingdom of God is a background theme|
|Author - Actual||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||2 or more unknown authors|
|Author - Assumed||Mark of Jerusalem; co-workers of Paul; bilingual (Aramaic & Greek) Christian of the 2nd generation||Matthew, tax collector and apostle; co-workers of Paul; multi-lingual (Aramaic & Greek) early Jewish Christian; trained "scribe"||Luke a Greek doctor; co-worker of Paul; physician and companion of Paul; Gentile Christian convert; well educated Greek "historian"||John, son of Zebedee; one of 12 apostles; the "beloved disciple" and his Jewish Christian followers|
|Author - Integrity||Mark travelled with his cousin Barnabus and with Paul.
Peter and Paul favorably mentioned Mark. He was known as Mark (Latin) and John (Hebrew)
|Matthew was a Jew, hired by Rome to collect taxes in Capernaum.
He was also known as Levi. Jesus called him to be an apostle
|Luke was an educated physician and an inspired historian.
Luke is often considered to have the best literary writing style of all New Testament authors.
His account was compiled from eyewitnesses to the ministry of Jesus
|John’s purpose for writing this gospel: "These are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in His name."
John's views were in direct opposition to the preceeding gospels and put John in conflict with the Early Christian community.
Whilst the teachings of Jesus in the synoptics came primarily in the form of sermons and parables; John presented His teachings in the context of conversations Jesus had with others.
John was rejected as heretical by many individuals and groups in the early Christian movement
|Target Audience|| Mark was probably written for Gentiles/Romans.
Mark often explained Jewish words, customs, and places.
He used Roman time rather than Hebrew time; and he translated some words into Latin.
| Matthew was written for Jews who were familiar with Old Testament prophecy.
He often mentions the Law of Moses and opens the gospel with a genealogy to prove Jesus was heir to King David.
Matthew was written to convince Jews that Jesus was the promised Messiah.
| Luke wrote the third gospel and the Book of Acts.
Both were addressed to a man whose name meant "one who loves God"
Jewish customs and places in Palestine are often explained in Luke.
| John's gospel was directed towards the mass Gentile Christian audience.
John's gospel has often been criticised, with questions surrounding the theology, historicity and its relationship with the synoptic Gospels.
The criticism of John persuaded a large number of scholars that what we have in John is not a historical account of Jesus of Nazareth, but a 'theological portrait' reflecting the convictions held by Christians who lived many years after Jesus and in a very different environment.
|Status||Servant of God||Promised King; King of the Jews||Son of Man; Perfect Savior of Man||Son of God; Equal to God|
|Title||Christ; Messiah;; Suffering Son of Man; Eschatological Judge||Son of David; Son of Abraham; King of the Jews; New Lawgiver; Great Teacher (like Moses); Emmanuel ("God with us")||Great Prophet (in word & deed); Lord (of Israel, and of all nations); Savior (of all, in particular the poor)||Eternal Logos; Divine Word made Flesh; Only Begotten Son; Sent from Father; Passover Lamb; "I Am" / "Equal to God"|
|Miracles by Jesus||Many "nature miracles," healings, and exorcisms||Many "nature miracles," healings, and exorcisms||Many "nature miracles," healings, and exorcisms||Few; all "nature miracles"|
|Poor & Needy||Yes, focus of his ministry||Yes, focus of his ministry||Yes, focus of his ministry||Rarely mentioned|
|Reference to himself||Rare||Rare||Rare||Focus of the gospel, including many "I AM" sayings|
|Exorcism||A ministry function||A ministry function||A ministry function||None performed|
|Jesus' Mission & Miracles|
|God became a human being||No mention||No mention||No mention||Yes|
|God's Son||No mention||No mention||No mention||Yes|
|Way to the Father||No mention||No mention||No mention||Yes|
|John the Baptist proclaims Jesus as Messiah||No mention||No mention||No mention||Yes|
|Turns water into wine||No mention||No mention||No mention||Yes|
|True Bread from Heaven||No mention||No mention||No mention||Yes|
|The Jews disagree that Jesus is from Heaven||No mention||No mention||No mention||Yes|
|Many disciples abandon Jesus||No mention||No mention||No mention||Yes|
|Jesus explains why he must die||No mention||No mention||No mention||Yes|
|Holy Spirit promised||No mention||No mention||No mention||Yes|
|Using his name in prayer||No mention||No mention||No mention||Yes|
|Jesus Baptism||Described||Described||Described||Not mentioned|
|Events in Jesus' Life|
|Ministry||1 year||1 year||1 year||3 years|
|Location of Ministry||Galilee||Galilee||Galilee||Judea, near Jerusalem|
|Involvement with Scribes (Jewish teachers)||26 references to scribes, who are puzzled and angered by Jesus' teachings||26 references to scribes, who are puzzled and angered by Jesus' teachings||26 references to scribes, who are puzzled and angered by Jesus' teachings||No references at all.|
|Aggravated assault in Temple courtyard||End of his ministry||End of his ministry||End of his ministry||Start of his ministry|
|Last Supper Date||Passover eve||Passover eve||Passover eve||Night before Passover eve|
|Last Supper||Communal meal||Communal meal||Communal meal||Foot washing|
|Who carried the cross?||Simon||Simon||Simon||Jesus|
|Theology||Similar beliefs to 1st century liberal Judaism taught by Hillel||Similar beliefs to 1st century liberal Judaism taught by Hillel||Similar beliefs to 1st century liberal Judaism taught by Hillel||Different, independent beliefs in opposition to Judaism|
|Actions||Miracles; Overcoming evil powers; Arguing with religious authorities||Teaching his disciples; Decrying religious hypocrisy||Healing sick & impaired people; Forgiving sinners & debtors||Speaking God's words; Doing God's works; Revealing his intimate relationship with God|
|Discipleship||Persevere in faith despite suffering; Follow Jesus "on the way" to the cross; Be ready for his return||Be righteous; Forgive always; Live ethically; Fulfill God's commands; Do charitable deeds||Leave everything to follow Jesus; Share with poor; Accept everyone (outcasts, enemies)||See, believe, know; Remain in Jesus and God, despite hostility; Love one another; Be in unity; Serve humbly|
Holy Ghost and other spiritual beings
|Spirit descends at Jesus' Baptism; Conflict with unclean/demonic spirits||Mary with child from Holy Spirit; God's Spirit in Jesus' actions and speech||Holy Spirit active in infancy narrative; Jesus receives prophetic anointing||Holy Spirit as Spirit of Truth; Paraclete/Advocate/Comforter|
Final events: Death, Judgment, Heaven/Hell
| Imminent and suddenly, but no one knows when;
So "Keep awake!"
||False prophets will arise; Many will fall away;
Gospel must be preached to all
||After Jerusalem is destroyed and Gentiles' time is fulfilled; Not so soon; Pray
||Realized eschatology; All who hear and believe have eternal life, are not judged
|Rank (New Testament, largest)||5th||3rd||1st
(Acts is 2nd)
|Old Testament quoted||23||45||23||14|
|2171 views · 3 days ago | • Author: Guest • Updated: 02 May 2018|