1 Corinthians  

The apostle Paul founded the church in Corinth.

A few years after leaving the church, Paul heard some disturbing reports about the Corinthian church. They were full of pride and were excusing sexual immorality. Spiritual gifts were being used improperly, and there was rampant misunderstanding of key Christian doctrines.

Paul wrote his first letter to the Corinthians in an attempt to restore the Corinthian church to its foundation, Jesus Christ.
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Authorship: (Assumed)Pliny the Younger (circa 100-103 AD)

The True Authorship of the New Testament, by Abelard Reuchlin 1986
[source]
Year Written: (Assumed)50-60 AD
Manuscript: (Earliest Available)175-225 AD - Fragment - Papyrus(14,15,46)
Scripture Type:Letters - Paul
An epistle (or letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. Pauls Epistles (or letters) are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul. As some of the earliest Christian documents, they provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of early Christianity and as part of the canon of the New Testament they are foundational texts for both Christian theology and ethics.
Further Reading: earlychristianwritings.com/text/1corinthians.html
earlychristianwritings.com/1corinthians.html
www.openbible.info/geo/preview/1cor
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   VIDEO (9 ) | 1 CORINTHIANS
In 1 Corinthians 11:3, does Jesus have an Authority higher than him? - Hashim vs Confused Christians    40:43
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In 1 Corinthians 8:6, There is but One God - Did Apostle Paul prove the Trinity is false? - RealDiscoveries    4:35
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Bible Project: 1 Corinthians    8:47
3.   199 views · 2 weeks ago  |  1 year ago
In 1 Corinthians 15:45, God speaks about the Christian Trinity - John Schoenheit - BiblicalUnitarian    10:30
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In 1 Corinthians 16:2, did Apostle Paul change Sabbath to Sunday? - BeyondTV 1/2    2:11
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In 1 Corinthians 16:2, did Apostle Paul change Sabbath to Sunday? - BeyondTV 2/2    5:10
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In 1 Corinthians 9:9, Apostle Paul questions Gods command to muzzle an Ox - Tovia Singer    3:13
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In 1 Corinthians 10:16, Jesus' body/blood are consumed at 'Eucharist'. Human sacrifice is not from Jewish scripture - Tovia Singer    13:12
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In 1 Corinthians (55 AD), Apostle Paul wrote of his Jesus vision, 25 years later - Richard Bauckham    0:50
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BIBLE CANONS (5) | 1 CORINTHIANS
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
YEAR
1 Marcion Canon
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Marcion Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

140 AD

2 Muratorian Canon
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

170 AD

3 Apostolic Canon
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

300 AD

4 Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

360 AD

5 Council of Rome
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

382 AD

Bible Canon
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'

367 AD

CHURCH FATHERS (17) | 1 CORINTHIANS
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
YEAR
1 Clement of Rome

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Clement of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

97 AD

2 Ignatius of Antioch

1 Corinthians was Rejected (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

110 AD

3 Barnabas

1 Corinthians was Rejected (0%) by Barnabas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

130 AD

4 Hermas

1 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Hermas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

140 AD

5 Papias of Hierapolis

1 Corinthians was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

140 AD

6 Polycarp

1 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

150 AD

7 Didache

1 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Didache
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

150 AD

8 Diognetus

1 Corinthians was Rejected (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

150 AD

9 Justin Martyr

1 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Justin Martyr
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

155 AD

10 Irenaeous

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Irenaeous
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

202 AD

11 Clement of Alexandria

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

215 AD

12 Tertullian

1 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

220 AD

13 Origen

1 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

254 AD

14 Eusebius of Caesarea

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

340 AD

15 Athanasius of Alexandria

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

367 AD

16 Cyril of Jerusalem

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

386 AD

17 Augustine of Hippo

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

400 AD

Bible Canon
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'

367 AD

TEXTUAL CRITICISM | 1 CORINTHIANS
Textual Criticism

EVIDENCE: Was Paul the Author?
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, all, if not the majority of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
EVIDENCE: Paul had a troubling 'Thorn'
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1 Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.
    2 Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)
    3 Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)
    4 Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.

EVIDENCE: Paul had Eye-Sight Problems
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.

    See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]

    As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

    Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'

EVIDENCE: Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.

    Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

EVIDENCE: Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters)
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?

    I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers

    Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.

    Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.

EVIDENCE: Bible Scholars who consider Paul's Letter 1CORINTHIANS forged and interpolated
'Interpolation' is where a Word, Verse, Passage or even entire Chapter was added to Paul's Letter, often many years after Paul had written, disseminated it or died. Bible Scholars who hold the view that Paul's Letter is interpolated include:

  • As a whole Bauer; Pierson; Loman
  • 1:2, Weiss (1917: 534); Gilmour (1962: 688).
  • 1:2b, Weiss (1910: xli, 3f.); Dinkier in RGG3; Schmithals (1965: 188f; 197 258);Schenke(1978:92f).
  • 1:12, Weiss; Heinrici (1880); Pearce in Bowyer (1812); Goguel (1926: IV, 2); Michaelis.
  • 1:16, Holsten (1880: 461 n.9, not asserted absolutely).
  • 2:6-16, Widmann (1979).
  • 4:6, Straatman; van de Sande Bakhuyzen (1880).
  • 4:17, Weiss (1910: xli, 120); Gilmour; Dinkier.
  • 6:3, Holsten.
  • 7:8, Holsten.
  • 7:11ab, Holsten.
  • 7:14, Holsten.
  • 7:17, Weiss (1910: xli); Gilmour; Dinkier.
  • 7:17-24, Munro (1983: 80f.).
  • 7:36-38, Holsten; Barnes (1947: 229).
  • 8, as a whole, Munro (1983).
  • 10, as a whole, Barnes (1947).
  • 10:4b, Holsten.
  • 10:13, Clemen; Pierson and Naber (1886: 81f.).
  • 10:17, Clemen.
  • 10:23-11:1, Munro 1983: 75-79).
  • 10:29b-30, Hitzig; Zuntz.
  • 11:2-16, Loisy (1935: 60f., 73f.,); Walker (1975; 1983; 1989); Cope (1978); Trompf (1980); Munro (1983: 69-75).
  • 11:5b-6, Holsten.
  • 11:10, Holsten; Lang; Wassenbergh (1815: 66); Straatman; Baljon; Owen; Lotze; Neander; Baur (1845: 636).
  • 11:11, Straatman.
  • 11:11f., Weiss (1910: xli).
  • 11:13-15, Holsten.
  • 11:16, Straatman; Prins; Baljon; Weiss (1910: xli, 276f.); Gilmour; Dinkier.
  • 11:23-28, Straatman; Bruins; Lehman and Fridrichsen (1922); Loisy (1922: 43, 67; 1935: 69-74).
  • 11:30, Prins.
  • 13, in entirety, Lehmann and Fridrichsen; Loisy (1922: 43, 67); (1935: 69-74); Barnes (1947: 230); Titus (1959); Schenke (1978).
  • 14:33-38, Munro (1983: 68f.).
  • 14:33, Weiss (1910: xli); Gilmour; Dinkier; Loisy (1935: 73).
  • 14:33b-35, Kiimmel; Straatman; van de Sande Bakhuyzen (1880); Holsten (1880: 495-97); van Manen (1880: 284-85); Genootsch (1880: 259f.); Schmiedel (1891); Weinel; Weiss (1910: 342); Allworthy (1917: 95-97); Dinkier; Loisy (1922: 43; 1933: 20 n.6; 1948: 363; 1961: 287); Leipoldt (1952); Zuntz (1953); Wendland (1954); Conzelmann (1969: 289f.); Ruef (1971: 154f.); Scroggs (1972); Munro (1973; 1983: 15f.); Jewett (1978); Perrin and Duling (1982: 180).
  • 14:34-35, only Heinrici; Pfleiderer (1887: 169n); Easton (1947); Fascher (1953); Leipoldt (1954); Schweizer (1959: 152); Fitzer (1963); Bittlinger (1967); Barrett (1987: 699-708); Murphy-O'Connor (1979: 81-84). Cf. also Clemen (1894: 49f., as displaced but not therefore ungenuine).
  • 15, as a whole, Barnes (1947: 228).
  • 15:3-11, Straatman, van Manen, Teylers.
  • 15:5b, Holsten.
  • 15:2lf., 42-49, O'Neill (1975: 96).
  • 16:22, Schmiedel; Baljon (1884); Holsten (1880: 450f.); Rovers; Bruins.
SCRIPTURE TEXT (31) | 1 CORINTHIANS
1 Corinthians   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 31
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1 Unto the church of God which is at Corinth, to them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all that in every place call upon the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both theirs and ours:
2 Grace be unto you, and peace, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.
3 I thank my God always on your behalf, for the grace of God which is given you by Jesus Christ;
4 That in every thing ye are enriched by him, in all utterance, and in all knowledge;
5 Even as the testimony of Christ was confirmed in you:
6 So that ye come behind in no gift; waiting for the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ:
7 Who shall also confirm you unto the end, that ye may be blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.
8 God is faithful, by whom ye were called unto the fellowship of his Son Jesus Christ our Lord.
9 Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions among you; but that ye be perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the same judgment.
10 For it hath been declared unto me of you, my brethren, by them which are of the house of Chloe, that there are contentions among you.
11 Now this I say, that every one of you saith, I am of Paul; and I of Apollos; and I of Cephas; and I of Christ.
12 Is Christ divided? was Paul crucified for you? or were ye baptized in the name of Paul?
13 I thank God that I baptized none of you, but Crispus and Gaius;
14 Lest any should say that I had baptized in mine own name.
15 And I baptized also the household of Stephanas: besides, I know not whether I baptized any other.
16 For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel: not with wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should be made of none effect.
17 For the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness; but unto us which are saved it is the power of God.
18 For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.
19 Where is the wise? where is the scribe? where is the disputer of this world? hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?
20 For after that in the wisdom of God the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.
21 For the Jews require a sign, and the Greeks seek after wisdom:
22 But we preach Christ crucified, unto the Jews a stumblingblock, and unto the Greeks foolishness;
23 But unto them which are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God.
24 Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men; and the weakness of God is stronger than men.
25 For ye see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called:
26 But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty;
27 And base things of the world, and things which are despised, hath God chosen, yea, and things which are not, to bring to nought things that are:
28 That no flesh should glory in his presence.
29 But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption:
30 That, according as it is written, He that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord.
1 Corinthians   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 31
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16


WARNING: Before You Read The Torah, Bible, Quran etc.
All SCRIPTURE TEXT has Context and Background. Text should never be read literally or in isolation. Always seek clarification from religious scholars and teachers. In general, to study Text requires four principles:

1. Literal Meaning - What the Text says
2. Historical Setting - The story events; how the Text was understood in its time
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