Romans  

As with all Paul's epistles to the churches, his purpose in writing was to proclaim the glory of the Lord Jesus Christ by teaching doctrine and edify and encourage the believers who would receive his letter.

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Authorship: (Assumed)Proculus Piso, son of Arrius C. Piso and Claudia Phoebe (circa 100 AD)

The True Authorship of the New Testament, by Abelard Reuchlin 1986
[source]


Claudia Phoebe is known in history as the wife of the emperor Trajan (as Pompeia Plotina). She wrote the last few verses of this epistle, which many copies of the NT in English leave out because that portion was written by a woman. This is obvious, and she even gives her name as 'Phoebe'. You can tell where the previous male author leaves off and the female author begins because the male author 'signs off' with 'Amen'. She wrote the last verses (25-27) of Romans, Chapter 16.
Year Written: (Assumed)56-58 AD
Manuscript: (Earliest Available)175-225 AD - Fragment - Papyrus(27,40,46)
Scripture Type:Letters - Paul
An epistle (or letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. Pauls Epistles (or letters) are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul. As some of the earliest Christian documents, they provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of early Christianity and as part of the canon of the New Testament they are foundational texts for both Christian theology and ethics.
Further Reading: earlychristianwritings.com/text/romans-kjv.html
earlychristianwritings.com/romans.html
www.openbible.info/geo/preview/rom
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   VIDEO (13 ) | ROMANS
In Romans 12:1, live your life without thinking - Ray Hagins    56:56
1.   266 views · 1 week ago  |  1 year ago
Did Jesus really exist, or did the Romans re-write history?    30:12
2.   191 views · 3 days ago  |  1 year ago
Why did the Romans Persecute Christians? - ReligionForBreakfast    8:19
3.   189 views · 5 days ago  |  1 year ago
Bible Project: Romans    7:47
4.   189 views · 2 days ago  |  1 year ago
Romans at the Gates - Siege of Jerusalem (70 AD) 1/3    14:05
5.   188 views · 2 days ago  |  1 year ago
In Romans 11:26, Apostle Paul misquotes Isaiah 59:20 and distorts the Jewish doctrine on the Redeemer - Michael Skobac    7:10
6.   166 views · 3 days ago  |  10 months ago
In Romans 14:2, Apostle Paul did away with Jewish dietary laws - Paul William vs PhD Josh    46:08
7.   165 views · 6 days ago  |  1 year ago
Julius Caesar, Romans and Pagan Worship - Ryan Reeves    32:48
8.   162 views · 7 days ago  |  1 year ago
In Romans 9:5, Jesus is God over all - Trinity Delusion    36:13
9.   160 views · 1 week ago  |  1 year ago
Forged Fiction: Romans    4:50
10.   158 views · 1 week ago  |  1 year ago
Book of Romans - David Brett    30:58
11.   101 views · 1 week ago  |  9 months ago
Romans, Greeks, Egyptians rampant with Idolatory and Pagan Gods. Muslims kiss a Black Stone! - Shabir Yusuf vs Arun    39:00
12.   72 views · 6 days ago  |  5 months ago
93% of Romans were polytheist pagans with many Gods. Christians had a 'more powerful' God - Bart Ehrman    3:33
13.   62 views · 1 week ago  |  3 months ago
BIBLE CANONS (5) | ROMANS
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
YEAR
1 Marcion Canon
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Marcion Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

140 AD

2 Muratorian Canon
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

170 AD

3 Apostolic Canon
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

300 AD

4 Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

360 AD

5 Council of Rome
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

382 AD

Bible Canon
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'

367 AD

CHURCH FATHERS (17) | ROMANS
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
YEAR
1 Clement of Rome

Romans was Approved (75%) by Clement of Rome
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

97 AD

2 Ignatius of Antioch

Romans was Rejected (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

110 AD

3 Barnabas

Romans was Rejected (0%) by Barnabas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

130 AD

4 Hermas

Romans was Rejected (0%) by Hermas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

140 AD

5 Papias of Hierapolis

Romans was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

140 AD

6 Polycarp

Romans was Approved (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

150 AD

7 Didache

Romans was Approved (75%) by Didache
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

150 AD

8 Diognetus

Romans was Rejected (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

150 AD

9 Justin Martyr

Romans was Approved (75%) by Justin Martyr
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

155 AD

10 Irenaeous

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Irenaeous
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

202 AD

11 Clement of Alexandria

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

215 AD

12 Tertullian

Romans was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

220 AD

13 Origen

Romans was Approved (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

254 AD

14 Eusebius of Caesarea

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

340 AD

15 Athanasius of Alexandria

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

367 AD

16 Cyril of Jerusalem

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

386 AD

17 Augustine of Hippo

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

400 AD

Bible Canon
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'

367 AD

TEXTUAL CRITICISM | ROMANS
Bible Translations: Missing/Disputed Verse
The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen
Displayed as above
Missing Verse
Missing Verse
EVIDENCE: Was Paul the Author?
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, all, if not the majority of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
EVIDENCE: Paul had a troubling 'Thorn'
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1 Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.
    2 Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)
    3 Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)
    4 Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.

EVIDENCE: Paul had Eye-Sight Problems
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.

    See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]

    As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

    Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'

EVIDENCE: Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.

    Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

EVIDENCE: Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters)
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?

    I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers

    Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.

    Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.

EVIDENCE: Bible Scholars who consider Paul's Letter ROMANS forged and interpolated
'Interpolation' is where a Word, Verse, Passage or even entire Chapter was added to Paul's Letter, often many years after Paul had written, disseminated it or died. Bible Scholars who hold the view that Paul's Letter is interpolated include:

  • 1:3-4 Loisy (1935: 9).
  • 1:18-32, parts by Michelsen (1876); Couchoud (1926); Harrison (1936:298f.); Carrington (1939); Hawkins (1941); O'Neill (1975: 40-45, continues until Rom. 2:29); Munro (1983: 112f).
  • 2:1, Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  • 2:13, Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  • 2:14f., Weiss sees as a gloss.
  • 2:15b-16, Sahlin (1953).
  • 2:16, Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note); Koester.
  • 3:9-20, Hawkins (1941).
  • 3:10-18, Weisse (1833); Pierson and Naber (1886); Michelsen (1887); van Manen (1880); Schenke and Fischer (1978: 142f.); O'Neill (1975, vv. 12-18).
  • 3:23-26, Hawkins (1941).
  • 3:24/25-26, Talbert (1966).
  • 4:1 and 4:17b, Schenke and Fischer (1978: 144) make the complicated suggestion that 4:17b really belongs at the end of 4:1. Weisse omits4:1.
  • 5:1, Schmithals (1975, probably redactional).
  • 5:5-10, Sahlin (1953) accepts in order 5, 8, 6, 9, 10; Schenke and Fischer (1978: 144) agree.
  • 5:6-7, Keck (1979: 237-38); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  • 5:7 Semler (1810) thinks added later.
  • 5:12-21, Barnes (1947: 239); O'Neill (1975: 96-107).
  • 6:17b, Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  • 7:25b, Bultmann; Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  • 8:1. Weisse omits; Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  • 10:17, Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  • 13:1-7, Pallis (1920); Loisy (1922: 104, 128; 1935: 30-31; 1936: 287); Windisch (1931); cf. Barnikol (1931b); Eggenberger (1945); Barnes (1947: 302, possibly); Kallas (1964-65); Munro (1983: 56f., 65-67); Sahlin (1953); Bultmann (1947).
  • 15 and 16 together, Baur (1836b; 1849; 1845); Schwegler (1846: I, 296); Zeller (1854: 488); Volkmar (1856; 1875: xvff., 129ff.); Lucht (1871); Ryder (1898); Smith (1901); Scholten (1876); Davidson (1882: 125-28; 1894: 126-31).
  • 15:4b, Schmithals (1975, redactional).
  • 16 as a whole, Weiss (1872); Hawkins (1941); Knox (1954); Friedrich (1961).
  • 16:17-20, Volkmar (1875); Pfleiderer (1887: 145).
  • 16:17-18, Loisy (1935: 29).
  • 16:24, Cranfield; Mangold (1884).
  • 16:25-27, Reiche (1833); Krehl (1845); Delitzsch (1849); Davidson (1868:134-37; 1882:118-21; 1894:120-23); Lucht (1871); Hilgenfeld (1872: 469ff.; 1875:326f.); Pfleiderer (1873: 314); Seyerlen (1874); Volkmar (1875); Schultz (1876); Mangold (1884: 44-81); Bruckner; Lipsius; von Weizsacker (1886: 334); Ji.ilicher (1894: 71); Corssen (1909: 1-45); Lake (1914: 359f.); Wendland (1912: 351); Weiss (1917: 534); Burton (1921: 509); Loisy(1922: 106, 134); Harnack (1931); Barnikol (1931a; 1933:116-48); Dodd (1932: 245); Manson (1948); Gaugler (1945); Zuntz (1953); Michel (1955: 19f.); Barrett (1958: 10-13, 286); Friedrich in RGG3 V, 1138; Beare (1962b: 112f.); Marxsen (1964); Fuller (1966: 56); Fitzmyer in Brown, Fitzmyer and Murphy (eds) (1990: 292); Bornkamm (1969); Lohse (1972); Kasemann (1973); Cranfield (1975:6-9); Schmithals (1975); Vielhauer (1975: 187f.); Gamble (1977: 107-10, 123f.); Schenke and Fischer (1978: I, 136f.); Elliot (1981); Dunn (1988: 912f.); Ziesler (1989: 25); Donfried (1970); Kamiah (1956).
SCRIPTURE TEXT (32) | ROMANS
Romans   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 32
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1 (Which he had promised afore by his prophets in the holy scriptures,)
2 Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;
3 And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:
4 By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all nations, for his name:
5 Among whom are ye also the called of Jesus Christ:
6 To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.
7 First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world.
8 For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers;
9 Making request, if by any means now at length I might have a prosperous journey by the will of God to come unto you.
10 For I long to see you, that I may impart unto you some spiritual gift, to the end ye may be established;
11 That is, that I may be comforted together with you by the mutual faith both of you and me.
12 Now I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that oftentimes I purposed to come unto you, (but was let hitherto,) that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among other Gentiles.
13 I am debtor both to the Greeks, and to the Barbarians; both to the wise, and to the unwise.
14 So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that are at Rome also.
15 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.
16 For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith.
17 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness;
18 Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them.
19 For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:
20 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.
21 Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,
22 And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.
23 Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves:
24 Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.
25 For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature:
26 And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet.
27 And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient;
28 Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers,
29 Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,
30 Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful:
31 Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.
Romans   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 32
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16


WARNING: Before You Read The Torah, Bible, Quran etc.
All SCRIPTURE TEXT has Context and Background. Text should never be read literally or in isolation. Always seek clarification from religious scholars and teachers. In general, to study Text requires four principles:

1. Literal Meaning - What the Text says
2. Historical Setting - The story events; how the Text was understood in its time
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4. Synthesis - A comparison with similar Texts to give a better contextual understanding

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