Ephesians  

Paul intended that all who long for Christ-like maturity would receive this writing.

Enclosed within the Book of Ephesians is the discipline needed to develop into true children of God. The aim of this epistle is to confirm and to equip a maturing church. It presents a balanced view of the body of Christ and its importance in God's economy.
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Authorship: (Assumed)
Pliny the Younger (circa 100-103 AD)

The True Authorship of the New Testament, by Abelard Reuchlin 1986
[source]
Year Written: (Assumed)
80-95 AD
Manuscript: (Earliest Available)
175-225 AD - Fragment - Papyrus(46,49)
Scripture Type:
Letters - Paul
An epistle (or letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. Pauls Epistles (or letters) are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul. As some of the earliest Christian documents, they provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of early Christianity and as part of the canon of the New Testament they are foundational texts for both Christian theology and ethics.
Further Reading:
earlychristianwritings.com/text/ephesians.html
earlychristianwritings.com/ephesians.html
www.openbible.info/geo/preview/eph
google.com/search
   VIDEO (3 ) | EPHESIANS
BIBLE CANONS (5) | EPHESIANS
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
1 Marcion Canon (140 AD)
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Marcion Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
2 Muratorian Canon (170 AD)
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
3 Apostolic Canon (300 AD)
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4 Cheltenham/ Mommsen List (360 AD)
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
5 Council of Rome (382 AD)
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
CHURCH FATHERS (17) | EPHESIANS
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
1 Clement of Rome (97 AD)

Ephesians was Approved (75%) by Clement of Rome
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
2 Ignatius of Antioch (110 AD)

Ephesians was Approved (75%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
3 Barnabas (130 AD)

Ephesians was Approved (75%) by Barnabas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
4 Hermas (140 AD)

Ephesians was Rejected (0%) by Hermas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
5 Papias of Hierapolis (140 AD)

Ephesians was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6 Polycarp (150 AD)

Ephesians was Approved (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
7 Didache (150 AD)

Ephesians was Rejected (0%) by Didache
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
8 Diognetus (150 AD)

Ephesians was Rejected (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
9 Justin Martyr (155 AD)

Ephesians was Approved (75%) by Justin Martyr
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
10 Irenaeous (202 AD)

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Irenaeous
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
11 Clement of Alexandria (215 AD)

Ephesians was Approved (75%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
12 Tertullian (220 AD)

Ephesians was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13 Origen (254 AD)

Ephesians was Approved (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
14 Eusebius of Caesarea (340 AD)

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15 Athanasius of Alexandria (367 AD)

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16 Cyril of Jerusalem (386 AD)

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17 Augustine of Hippo (400 AD)

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
TEXTUAL CRITICISM | EPHESIANS
Textual Criticism
EVIDENCE: Was Paul the Author?
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, all, if not the majority of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
EVIDENCE: Paul had a troubling 'Thorn'
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1 Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.
    2 Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)
    3 Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)
    4 Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.

EVIDENCE: Paul had Eye-Sight Problems
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.

    See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]

    As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

    Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'

EVIDENCE: Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.

    Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

EVIDENCE: Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters)
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?

    I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers

    Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.

    Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.

SCRIPTURE TEXT (23) | EPHESIANS
Ephesians   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 23
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 Grace be to you, and peace, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.
2 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ:
3 According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love:
4 Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will,
5 To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved.
6 In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace;
7 Wherein he hath abounded toward us in all wisdom and prudence;
8 Having made known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in himself:
9 That in the dispensation of the fulness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him:
10 In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will:
11 That we should be to the praise of his glory, who first trusted in Christ.
12 In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise,
13 Which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession, unto the praise of his glory.
14 Wherefore I also, after I heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus, and love unto all the saints,
15 Cease not to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers;
16 That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him:
17 The eyes of your understanding being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints,
18 And what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power,
19 Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places,
20 Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come:
21 And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church,
22 Which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all.
Ephesians   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 23
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6


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