2 Timothy  

Imprisoned in Rome yet again, Paul felt lonely and abandoned.

He recognized that his earthly life was coming to an end. 2 Timothy is essentially Paul's last words. Paul looked past his own circumstances to express concern for the churches and specifically for Timothy. Paul wanted to use his last words to encourage Timothy, and all other believers, to persevere in faith and proclaim the gospel of Jesus Christ.
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Authorship: (Assumed)
Justus C. Piso (circa 107 AD)

The True Authorship of the New Testament, by Abelard Reuchlin 1986
[source]
Year Written: (Assumed)
67 AD
Manuscript: (Earliest Available)
350 AD - Codex Sinaiticus - Complete
Scripture Type:
Letters - Paul
An epistle (or letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. Pauls Epistles (or letters) are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul. As some of the earliest Christian documents, they provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of early Christianity and as part of the canon of the New Testament they are foundational texts for both Christian theology and ethics.
Further Reading:
earlychristianwritings.com/text/2timothy.html
earlychristianwritings.com/2timothy.html
www.openbible.info/geo/preview/2tim
google.com/search
   VIDEO (4 ) | 2 TIMOTHY
BIBLE CANONS (5) | 2 TIMOTHY
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
1 Marcion Canon (140 AD)
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion

2 Timothy was Rejected (0%) by Marcion Canon
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
2 Muratorian Canon (170 AD)
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian

2 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
3 Apostolic Canon (300 AD)
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons

2 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4 Cheltenham/ Mommsen List (360 AD)
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham

2 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
5 Council of Rome (382 AD)
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.

2 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
CHURCH FATHERS (17) | 2 TIMOTHY
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
1 Clement of Rome (97 AD)

2 Timothy was Rejected (0%) by Clement of Rome
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
2 Ignatius of Antioch (110 AD)

2 Timothy was Rejected (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3 Barnabas (130 AD)

2 Timothy was Approved (75%) by Barnabas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
4 Hermas (140 AD)

2 Timothy was Approved (75%) by Hermas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
5 Papias of Hierapolis (140 AD)

2 Timothy was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6 Polycarp (150 AD)

2 Timothy was Rejected (0%) by Polycarp
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
7 Didache (150 AD)

2 Timothy was Rejected (0%) by Didache
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
8 Diognetus (150 AD)

2 Timothy was Rejected (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
9 Justin Martyr (155 AD)

2 Timothy was Rejected (0%) by Justin Martyr
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
10 Irenaeous (202 AD)

2 Timothy was Approved (75%) by Irenaeous
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
11 Clement of Alexandria (215 AD)

2 Timothy was Rejected (0%) by Clement of Alexandria
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
12 Tertullian (220 AD)

2 Timothy was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13 Origen (254 AD)

2 Timothy was Approved (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
14 Eusebius of Caesarea (340 AD)

2 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15 Athanasius of Alexandria (367 AD)

2 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16 Cyril of Jerusalem (386 AD)

2 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17 Augustine of Hippo (400 AD)

2 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
TEXTUAL CRITICISM | 2 TIMOTHY
Textual Criticism
EVIDENCE: Was Paul the Author?
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, all, if not the majority of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
EVIDENCE: Paul had a troubling 'Thorn'
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1 Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.
    2 Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)
    3 Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)
    4 Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.

EVIDENCE: Paul had Eye-Sight Problems
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.

    See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]

    As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

    Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'

EVIDENCE: Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.

    Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

EVIDENCE: Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters)
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?

    I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers

    Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.

    Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.

SCRIPTURE TEXT (18) | 2 TIMOTHY
2 Timothy   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 18
Chapter:
1 2 3 4
1 To Timothy, my dearly beloved son: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.
2 I thank God, whom I serve from my forefathers with pure conscience, that without ceasing I have remembrance of thee in my prayers night and day;
3 Greatly desiring to see thee, being mindful of thy tears, that I may be filled with joy;
4 When I call to remembrance the unfeigned faith that is in thee, which dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, and thy mother Eunice; and I am persuaded that in thee also.
5 Wherefore I put thee in remembrance that thou stir up the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands.
6 For God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind.
7 Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner: but be thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel according to the power of God;
8 Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began,
9 But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel:
10 Whereunto I am appointed a preacher, and an apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles.
11 For the which cause I also suffer these things: nevertheless I am not ashamed: for I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day.
12 Hold fast the form of sound words, which thou hast heard of me, in faith and love which is in Christ Jesus.
13 That good thing which was committed unto thee keep by the Holy Ghost which dwelleth in us.
14 This thou knowest, that all they which are in Asia be turned away from me; of whom are Phygellus and Hermogenes.
15 The Lord give mercy unto the house of Onesiphorus; for he oft refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain:
16 But, when he was in Rome, he sought me out very diligently, and found me.
17 The Lord grant unto him that he may find mercy of the Lord in that day: and in how many things he ministered unto me at Ephesus, thou knowest very well.
2 Timothy   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 18
Chapter:
1 2 3 4


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1. Literal Meaning - What the Text says
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3. Grammar - The surrounding sentence and paragraph; textual context
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