Philippians  

The occasion of the epistle was to acknowledge a gift of money from the church at Philippi, brought to Paul by Epaphroditus, one of its members.

This is a tender letter to a group of Christians who were especially close to the heart of Paul, and little is said about doctrinal error.
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Authorship: (Assumed)Justus C. Piso (circa 103-105 AD)

The True Authorship of the New Testament, by Abelard Reuchlin 1986
[source]
Year Written: (Assumed)50-60 AD
Manuscript: (Earliest Available)175-225 AD - Fragment - Papyrus(16,46)
Scripture Type:Letters - Paul
An epistle (or letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. Pauls Epistles (or letters) are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul. As some of the earliest Christian documents, they provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of early Christianity and as part of the canon of the New Testament they are foundational texts for both Christian theology and ethics.
Further Reading: earlychristianwritings.com/text/philippians.html
earlychristianwritings.com/philippians.html
www.openbible.info/geo/preview/phil
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   VIDEO (2 ) | PHILIPPIANS
In Philippians 3:8, Apostle Paul compares Jewish Law with excrement - Tovia Singer    9:26
1.   198 views · 5 days ago  |  1 year ago
Bible Project: Philippians    9:14
2.   193 views · 2 weeks ago  |  1 year ago
BIBLE CANONS (5) | PHILIPPIANS
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
YEAR
1 Marcion Canon
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion

Philippians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Marcion Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

140 AD

2 Muratorian Canon
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian

Philippians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

170 AD

3 Apostolic Canon
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons

Philippians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

300 AD

4 Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham

Philippians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

360 AD

5 Council of Rome
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.

Philippians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

382 AD

Bible Canon
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'

367 AD

CHURCH FATHERS (17) | PHILIPPIANS
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
YEAR
1 Clement of Rome

Philippians was Rejected (0%) by Clement of Rome
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

97 AD

2 Ignatius of Antioch

Philippians was Approved (75%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

110 AD

3 Barnabas

Philippians was Rejected (0%) by Barnabas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

130 AD

4 Hermas

Philippians was Approved (75%) by Hermas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

140 AD

5 Papias of Hierapolis

Philippians was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

140 AD

6 Polycarp

Philippians was Approved (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

150 AD

7 Didache

Philippians was Rejected (0%) by Didache
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

150 AD

8 Diognetus

Philippians was Rejected (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

150 AD

9 Justin Martyr

Philippians was Rejected (0%) by Justin Martyr
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

155 AD

10 Irenaeous

Philippians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Irenaeous
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

202 AD

11 Clement of Alexandria

Philippians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

215 AD

12 Tertullian

Philippians was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

220 AD

13 Origen

Philippians was Approved (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

254 AD

14 Eusebius of Caesarea

Philippians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

340 AD

15 Athanasius of Alexandria

Philippians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

367 AD

16 Cyril of Jerusalem

Philippians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

386 AD

17 Augustine of Hippo

Philippians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

400 AD

Bible Canon
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'

367 AD

TEXTUAL CRITICISM | PHILIPPIANS
Textual Criticism

EVIDENCE: Was Paul the Author?
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, all, if not the majority of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
EVIDENCE: Paul had a troubling 'Thorn'
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1 Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.
    2 Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)
    3 Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)
    4 Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.

EVIDENCE: Paul had Eye-Sight Problems
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.

    See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]

    As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

    Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'

EVIDENCE: Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.

    Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

EVIDENCE: Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters)
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?

    I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers

    Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.

    Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.

EVIDENCE: Bible Scholars who consider Paul's Letter PHILIPPIANS forged and interpolated
'Interpolation' is where a Word, Verse, Passage or even entire Chapter was added to Paul's Letter, often many years after Paul had written, disseminated it or died. Bible Scholars who hold the view that Paul's Letter is interpolated include:

  • Baur and Schwegler held the whole epistle non-Pauline; as apparently did Volkmar and Hitzig Davidson {1882: 164) refers to early division theories. For the early attempt to exclude parts of the epistle see Volter (1892}; Clemen {1894).
  • 1:1b, Bruckner; Volter {1892}; Schmiedel {1902}; Moffatt {1918: 171}; Riddle and Hutson (1946: 123); Marxsen {1964: 57}; Fischer{1973}; Schenke and Fischer (1978: 126}.
  • 2:6-11, Loisy {1935: 91f.; 1948: 364}; Bruckner (1885; 1890: xix, 219ff.}; but cp. Marxsen (1969: 22-37}; Holsten {1876}; Barnikol {1932b}; Barnes (1947: 244, "perhaps open to some doubt; it might be a development at the end of the first century of our era"}; Berlage {1880: 80ff.}; Schmiedel {in part).
  • 3:1-4.9 Schrader apud Davidson {1882: 158).
  • 3:1, Clemen.
  • 3:2, 5, Weisse.
  • 3:9, Wassenbergh.
  • 3:10f., Schmiedel.
  • 3:18, Laurent.
  • 3:20, Bruckner; Clemen.
  • 4:2f., Ewald.
  • 4:3, Schenke {1978: 128).
SCRIPTURE TEXT (30) | PHILIPPIANS
Philippians   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 30
Chapter:
1 2 3 4
1 Grace be unto you, and peace, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.
2 I thank my God upon every remembrance of you,
3 Always in every prayer of mine for you all making request with joy,
4 For your fellowship in the gospel from the first day until now;
5 Being confident of this very thing, that he which hath begun a good work in you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ:
6 Even as it is meet for me to think this of you all, because I have you in my heart; inasmuch as both in my bonds, and in the defence and confirmation of the gospel, ye all are partakers of my grace.
7 For God is my record, how greatly I long after you all in the bowels of Jesus Christ.
8 And this I pray, that your love may abound yet more and more in knowledge and in all judgment;
9 That ye may approve things that are excellent; that ye may be sincere and without offence till the day of Christ;
10 Being filled with the fruits of righteousness, which are by Jesus Christ, unto the glory and praise of God.
11 But I would ye should understand, brethren, that the things which happened unto me have fallen out rather unto the furtherance of the gospel;
12 So that my bonds in Christ are manifest in all the palace, and in all other places;
13 And many of the brethren in the Lord, waxing confident by my bonds, are much more bold to speak the word without fear.
14 Some indeed preach Christ even of envy and strife; and some also of good will:
15 The one preach Christ of contention, not sincerely, supposing to add affliction to my bonds:
16 But the other of love, knowing that I am set for the defence of the gospel.
17 What then? notwithstanding, every way, whether in pretence, or in truth, Christ is preached; and I therein do rejoice, yea, and will rejoice.
18 For I know that this shall turn to my salvation through your prayer, and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ,
19 According to my earnest expectation and my hope, that in nothing I shall be ashamed, but that with all boldness, as always, so now also Christ shall be magnified in my body, whether it be by life, or by death.
20 For to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain.
21 But if I live in the flesh, this is the fruit of my labour: yet what I shall choose I wot not.
22 For I am in a strait betwixt two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ; which is far better:
23 Nevertheless to abide in the flesh is more needful for you.
24 And having this confidence, I know that I shall abide and continue with you all for your furtherance and joy of faith;
25 That your rejoicing may be more abundant in Jesus Christ for me by my coming to you again.
26 Only let your conversation be as it becometh the gospel of Christ: that whether I come and see you, or else be absent, I may hear of your affairs, that ye stand fast in one spirit, with one mind striving together for the faith of the gospel;
27 And in nothing terrified by your adversaries: which is to them an evident token of perdition, but to you of salvation, and that of God.
28 For unto you it is given in the behalf of Christ, not only to believe on him, but also to suffer for his sake;
29 Having the same conflict which ye saw in me, and now hear to be in me.
Philippians   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 30
Chapter:
1 2 3 4


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