Hebrews  

In truth, many of the early Jewish believers were slipping back into the rites and rituals of Judaism in order to escape the mounting persecution.

This letter is an exhortation for those persecuted believers to continue in the grace of Jesus Christ.
W Epistle_to_the_Hebrews
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Authorship: (Assumed)
Flavius Arrianus, grandson of Arrius Piso (circa 140 AD)

The True Authorship of the New Testament, by Abelard Reuchlin 1986
[source]


Flavius Arrianus was the real name of the historian who wrote as 'Appian'. This person was the half-brother of the emperor Antoninus Pius. Antoninus Pius, by the way, also wrote history under the name of Suetonius. Flavius Arrianus also wrote other works, most notably, he wrote under the name of 'Ptolemy'.
Year Written: (Assumed)
70-90 AD
Manuscript: (Earliest Available)
175-225 AD - Fragment - Papyrus(12,13,17,46)
Scripture Type:
Letters - Other
An epistle (or letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. Other epistles are known as catholic (or general) epistles.
Further Reading:

www.openbible.info/geo/preview/heb
google.com/search
   VIDEO (16 ) | HEBREWS
BIBLE CANONS (5) | HEBREWS
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
1 Marcion Canon (140 AD)
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Marcion Canon
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
2 Muratorian Canon (170 AD)
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Muratorian Canon
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3 Apostolic Canon (300 AD)
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4 Cheltenham/ Mommsen List (360 AD)
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
5 Council of Rome (382 AD)
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
CHURCH FATHERS (17) | HEBREWS
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
1 Clement of Rome (97 AD)

Hebrews was Approved (75%) by Clement of Rome
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
2 Ignatius of Antioch (110 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3 Barnabas (130 AD)

Hebrews was Approved (75%) by Barnabas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
4 Hermas (140 AD)

Hebrews was Approved (75%) by Hermas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
5 Papias of Hierapolis (140 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6 Polycarp (150 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Polycarp
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
7 Didache (150 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Didache
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
8 Diognetus (150 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
9 Justin Martyr (155 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Justin Martyr
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
10 Irenaeous (202 AD)

Hebrews was Approved (75%) by Irenaeous
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
11 Clement of Alexandria (215 AD)

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
12 Tertullian (220 AD)

Hebrews was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13 Origen (254 AD)

Hebrews was Disputed (50%) by Origen
(Dubious; useful for inspiration)
14 Eusebius of Caesarea (340 AD)

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15 Athanasius of Alexandria (367 AD)

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16 Cyril of Jerusalem (386 AD)

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17 Augustine of Hippo (400 AD)

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
TEXTUAL CRITICISM | HEBREWS
Textual Criticism

EVIDENCE: Was Paul the Author?
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, all, if not the majority of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
EVIDENCE: Paul had a troubling 'Thorn'
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1 Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.
    2 Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)
    3 Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)
    4 Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.

EVIDENCE: Paul had Eye-Sight Problems
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.

    See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]

    As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

    Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'

EVIDENCE: Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.

    Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

EVIDENCE: Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters)
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?

    I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers

    Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.

    Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.

SCRIPTURE TEXT (14) | HEBREWS
Hebrews   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 14
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
1 Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;
2 Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high;
3 Being made so much better than the angels, as he hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they.
4 For unto which of the angels said he at any time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee? And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son?
5 And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.
6 And of the angels he saith, Who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire.
7 But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom.
8 Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.
9 And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands:
10 They shall perish; but thou remainest; and they all shall wax old as doth a garment;
11 And as a vesture shalt thou fold them up, and they shall be changed: but thou art the same, and thy years shall not fail.
12 But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool?
13 Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation?
Hebrews   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 14
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13


WARNING: Before You Read The Torah, Bible, Quran etc.
All SCRIPTURE TEXT has Context and Background. Text should never be read literally or in isolation. Always seek clarification from religious scholars and teachers. In general, to study Text requires four principles:

1. Literal Meaning - What the Text says
2. Historical Setting - The story events; how the Text was understood in its time
3. Grammar - The surrounding sentence and paragraph; textual context
4. Synthesis - A comparison with similar Texts to give a better contextual understanding

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