Titus  

Titus was written by Paul to encourage his brother in the faith, Titus, who he had left in Crete to lead the church which Paul had established on one of his missionary journeys.

This letter advises Titus regarding what qualifications to look for in leaders for the church. He also warns Titus of the reputations of those living on the island of Crete.

In addition to instructing Titus in what to look for in a leader of the church, Paul also encouraged Titus to return to Nicopolis for a visit. Therefore, Paul continued to disciple Titus and others as they grew in the grace of the Lord.
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Authorship: (Assumed)
Pliny the Younger (circa 103-105 AD)

The True Authorship of the New Testament, by Abelard Reuchlin 1986
[source]
Year Written: (Assumed)
62 AD
Manuscript: (Earliest Available)
200 AD - Fragment - Papyrus(32)
Scripture Type:
Letters - Paul
An epistle (or letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. Pauls Epistles (or letters) are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul. As some of the earliest Christian documents, they provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of early Christianity and as part of the canon of the New Testament they are foundational texts for both Christian theology and ethics.
Further Reading:
earlychristianwritings.com/text/titus.html
earlychristianwritings.com/titus.html
www.openbible.info/geo/preview/titus
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   VIDEO (5 ) | TITUS
BIBLE CANONS (5) | TITUS
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
1 Marcion Canon (140 AD)
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion

Titus was Rejected (0%) by Marcion Canon
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
2 Muratorian Canon (170 AD)
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian

Titus was Fully Accepted (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
3 Apostolic Canon (300 AD)
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons

Titus was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4 Cheltenham/ Mommsen List (360 AD)
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham

Titus was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
5 Council of Rome (382 AD)
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.

Titus was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
CHURCH FATHERS (17) | TITUS
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
1 Clement of Rome (97 AD)

Titus was Approved (75%) by Clement of Rome
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
2 Ignatius of Antioch (110 AD)

Titus was Rejected (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3 Barnabas (130 AD)

Titus was Approved (75%) by Barnabas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
4 Hermas (140 AD)

Titus was Rejected (0%) by Hermas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
5 Papias of Hierapolis (140 AD)

Titus was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6 Polycarp (150 AD)

Titus was Rejected (0%) by Polycarp
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
7 Didache (150 AD)

Titus was Rejected (0%) by Didache
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
8 Diognetus (150 AD)

Titus was Approved (75%) by Diognetus
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
9 Justin Martyr (155 AD)

Titus was Rejected (0%) by Justin Martyr
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
10 Irenaeous (202 AD)

Titus was Approved (75%) by Irenaeous
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
11 Clement of Alexandria (215 AD)

Titus was Fully Accepted (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
12 Tertullian (220 AD)

Titus was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13 Origen (254 AD)

Titus was Approved (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
14 Eusebius of Caesarea (340 AD)

Titus was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15 Athanasius of Alexandria (367 AD)

Titus was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16 Cyril of Jerusalem (386 AD)

Titus was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17 Augustine of Hippo (400 AD)

Titus was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
TEXTUAL CRITICISM | TITUS

EVIDENCE: Was Paul the Author?
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, all, if not the majority of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
EVIDENCE: Paul had a troubling 'Thorn'
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1 Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.
    2 Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)
    3 Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)
    4 Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.

EVIDENCE: Paul had Eye-Sight Problems
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.

    See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]

    As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

    Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'

EVIDENCE: Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.

    Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

EVIDENCE: Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters)
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?

    I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers

    Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.

    Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.

SCRIPTURE TEXT (16) | TITUS
Titus   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 16
Chapter:
1 2 3
1 In hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began;
2 But hath in due times manifested his word through preaching, which is committed unto me according to the commandment of God our Saviour;
3 To Titus, mine own son after the common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour.
4 For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee:
5 If any be blameless, the husband of one wife, having faithful children not accused of riot or unruly.
6 For a bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not selfwilled, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre;
7 But a lover of hospitality, a lover of good men, sober, just, holy, temperate;
8 Holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught, that he may be able by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers.
9 For there are many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers, specially they of the circumcision:
10 Whose mouths must be stopped, who subvert whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for filthy lucre's sake.
11 One of themselves, even a prophet of their own, said, The Cretians are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies.
12 This witness is true. Wherefore rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith;
13 Not giving heed to Jewish fables, and commandments of men, that turn from the truth.
14 Unto the pure all things are pure: but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; but even their mind and conscience is defiled.
15 They profess that they know God; but in works they deny him, being abominable, and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate.
Titus   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 16
Chapter:
1 2 3


WARNING: Before You Read The Torah, Bible, Quran etc.
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1. Literal Meaning - What the Text says
2. Historical Setting - The story events; how the Text was understood in its time
3. Grammar - The surrounding sentence and paragraph; textual context
4. Synthesis - A comparison with similar Texts to give a better contextual understanding

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