2 Corinthians  

In his second letter to the Corinthians, Paul expresses his relief and joy that the Corinthians had received his letter (now lost) in a positive manner.

That letter addressed issues that were tearing the church apart, primarily the arrival of self-styled (false) apostles who were assaulting Paul's character, sowing discord among the believers, and teaching false doctrine. They appear to have questioned his veracity, his speaking ability, and his unwillingness to accept support from the church at Corinth.

Positively, Paul found the Corinthians had well received his letter. He was overjoyed to learn from Titus that the majority of Corinthians repented of their rebellion against himself. Paul also sought to vindicate his apostleship, as some in the church had likely questioned his authority.
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Authorship: (Assumed)Justus C. Piso (circa 103-105 AD)

The True Authorship of the New Testament, by Abelard Reuchlin 1986
[source]
Year Written: (Assumed)55-57 AD
Manuscript: (Earliest Available)175-225 AD - Fragment - Papyrus(46)
Scripture Type:Letters - Paul
An epistle (or letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. Pauls Epistles (or letters) are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul. As some of the earliest Christian documents, they provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of early Christianity and as part of the canon of the New Testament they are foundational texts for both Christian theology and ethics.
Further Reading: earlychristianwritings.com/text/2corinthians.html
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   VIDEO (6 ) | 2 CORINTHIANS
Did Apostle Paul write 2 Corinthians? - Bart Ehrman    8:45
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Bible Project: 2 Corinthians    8:38
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In 1 Corinthians 16:2, did Apostle Paul change Sabbath to Sunday? - BeyondTV 1/2    2:11
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In 1 Corinthians 16:2, did Apostle Paul change Sabbath to Sunday? - BeyondTV 2/2    5:10
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In 2 Corinthians 4:4, Satan is the God of the world. Do Christians follow Satan today? - Hashim vs Christians    27:42
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In 1 Corinthians (55 AD), Apostle Paul wrote of his Jesus vision, 25 years later - Richard Bauckham    0:50
6.   17 views · 6 days ago  |  2 months ago
BIBLE CANONS (5) | 2 CORINTHIANS
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
YEAR
1 Marcion Canon
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion

2 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Marcion Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

140 AD

2 Muratorian Canon
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian

2 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

170 AD

3 Apostolic Canon
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons

2 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

300 AD

4 Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham

2 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

360 AD

5 Council of Rome
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.

2 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

382 AD

Bible Canon
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'

367 AD

CHURCH FATHERS (17) | 2 CORINTHIANS
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
YEAR
1 Clement of Rome

2 Corinthians was Rejected (0%) by Clement of Rome
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

97 AD

2 Ignatius of Antioch

2 Corinthians was Rejected (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

110 AD

3 Barnabas

2 Corinthians was Rejected (0%) by Barnabas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

130 AD

4 Hermas

2 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Hermas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

140 AD

5 Papias of Hierapolis

2 Corinthians was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

140 AD

6 Polycarp

2 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

150 AD

7 Didache

2 Corinthians was Rejected (0%) by Didache
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

150 AD

8 Diognetus

2 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Diognetus
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

150 AD

9 Justin Martyr

2 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Justin Martyr
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

155 AD

10 Irenaeous

2 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Irenaeous
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

202 AD

11 Clement of Alexandria

2 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

215 AD

12 Tertullian

2 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

220 AD

13 Origen

2 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

254 AD

14 Eusebius of Caesarea

2 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

340 AD

15 Athanasius of Alexandria

2 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

367 AD

16 Cyril of Jerusalem

2 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

386 AD

17 Augustine of Hippo

2 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

400 AD

Bible Canon
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'

367 AD

TEXTUAL CRITICISM | 2 CORINTHIANS
Textual Criticism

EVIDENCE: Was Paul the Author?
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, all, if not the majority of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
EVIDENCE: Paul had a troubling 'Thorn'
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1 Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.
    2 Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)
    3 Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)
    4 Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.

EVIDENCE: Paul had Eye-Sight Problems
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.

    See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]

    As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

    Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'

EVIDENCE: Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.

    Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

EVIDENCE: Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters)
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?

    I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers

    Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.

    Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.

EVIDENCE: Bible Scholars who consider Paul's Letter 2CORINTHIANS forged and interpolated
'Interpolation' is where a Word, Verse, Passage or even entire Chapter was added to Paul's Letter, often many years after Paul had written, disseminated it or died. Bible Scholars who hold the view that Paul's Letter is interpolated include:

  • 1:1b, Schmithals; Schenke and Fischer (1978: 112).
  • 3:12-18 and 4:3, 4, 6, Halmel (1904).
  • 3:17, 18b, Schmithals (1958; 1969: 286ff.).
  • 4:4, Baljon; Wassenbergh.
  • 5:16, Schmithals; Giittgemanns (1966: 290ff.).
  • 6:14-7:1, Schrader (1835: IV, 300f.); Ewald (1857: 12, 282f.); Straatman (1863: I, 138-46); Baljon; Holsten (1868: 386); Michelsen (1873); Rovers (1874: I, 137); van de Sande Bakhuyzen (1880: 266f.); Davidson (1882: 60; 1894: 63); Krenke!(1890: 332); Halmel (1904: 115-29); Jiilicher and Fascher (1931: 87f.); Groussow (1951a, 1951b); Dinkier in RGG 3 IV, 18, 22; Fitzmyer (1961); Gnilka (1968); Georgi (1986/7: 21-22); Marxsen (1964); Braun (1966: 201-204); Fuller (1966: 41-42); Wendland (1968); Rissi (1969: 79-80); Klinzing (1971: 172-82); Dahl (1972: 62-69); Betz (1973); Gunther (1973: 308-13); Perrin and Duling (1982: 182); Vielhauer (1975: 153); Bultmann (1976: 169); Schenke and Fischer (1978: llOf., 117f.); Lang; Findeis (1983: 66); Klauck (1988: 60-61); Wiirzburg (1988: 60-61); Kuhn (1951-52; 1954); Jewett (1978: 433 n.4).
  • 11:32-12:1, Michelsen (1873).
  • 12:2, Matthes; Rovers (1870); Scholten (1876).
  • 13:13, Burton (1921: 509); Goodspeed (1945; 57); Furnish (1984: 587); Barrett.
SCRIPTURE TEXT (24) | 2 CORINTHIANS
2 Corinthians   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 24
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
1 Grace be to you and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.
2 Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all comfort;
3 Who comforteth us in all our tribulation, that we may be able to comfort them which are in any trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God.
4 For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our consolation also aboundeth by Christ.
5 And whether we be afflicted, it is for your consolation and salvation, which is effectual in the enduring of the same sufferings which we also suffer: or whether we be comforted, it is for your consolation and salvation.
6 And our hope of you is stedfast, knowing, that as ye are partakers of the sufferings, so shall ye be also of the consolation.
7 For we would not, brethren, have you ignorant of our trouble which came to us in Asia, that we were pressed out of measure, above strength, insomuch that we despaired even of life:
8 But we had the sentence of death in ourselves, that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God which raiseth the dead:
9 Who delivered us from so great a death, and doth deliver: in whom we trust that he will yet deliver us;
10 Ye also helping together by prayer for us, that for the gift bestowed upon us by the means of many persons thanks may be given by many on our behalf.
11 For our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, we have had our conversation in the world, and more abundantly to you-ward.
12 For we write none other things unto you, than what ye read or acknowledge; and I trust ye shall acknowledge even to the end;
13 As also ye have acknowledged us in part, that we are your rejoicing, even as ye also are ours in the day of the Lord Jesus.
14 And in this confidence I was minded to come unto you before, that ye might have a second benefit;
15 And to pass by you into Macedonia, and to come again out of Macedonia unto you, and of you to be brought on my way toward Judaea.
16 When I therefore was thus minded, did I use lightness? or the things that I purpose, do I purpose according to the flesh, that with me there should be yea yea, and nay nay?
17 But as God is true, our word toward you was not yea and nay.
18 For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was preached among you by us, even by me and Silvanus and Timotheus, was not yea and nay, but in him was yea.
19 For all the promises of God in him are yea, and in him Amen, unto the glory of God by us.
20 Now he which stablisheth us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, is God;
21 Who hath also sealed us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts.
22 Moreover I call God for a record upon my soul, that to spare you I came not as yet unto Corinth.
23 Not for that we have dominion over your faith, but are helpers of your joy: for by faith ye stand.
2 Corinthians   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 24
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13


WARNING: Before You Read The Torah, Bible, Quran etc.
All SCRIPTURE TEXT has Context and Background. Text should never be read literally or in isolation. Always seek clarification from religious scholars and teachers. In general, to study Text requires four principles:

1. Literal Meaning - What the Text says
2. Historical Setting - The story events; how the Text was understood in its time
3. Grammar - The surrounding sentence and paragraph; textual context
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